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Factors That You Can't Change (Non-Modifiable)

  • Advancing age: most powerful independent risk factor.
  • Male gender: also higher risk of coronary heart disease among men compared with women.
  • Heredity or family history: increased risk if a first-degree relative has had coronary heart disease or stroke before the age of 55 years (for a male relative) or 65 years (for a female relative).
  • Non-white ethnicity or race: increased stroke in Blacks, some Hispanic Americans, Chinese, and Japanese populations. Increased cardiovascular deaths in South Asians and American Blacks in comparison with Whites.
  • Previous history of TIA and/or stroke.




 Risk Factors for Stroke/TIA